Heavy metals (metallic elements with density great than 5 gm/cm3) constitute oxic, non- biodegradable and persistent environmental pollutants, which adversely affect all life forms. The ever-increasing contamination of aquatic bodiesand soil by heavy metals is an issue of serious concern and challenge worldwide. Enzyme activity like peroxidase and catalase estimated in Spirogyra sp and Oscillatoriasp under heavy metals like cadmium, lead and chromium stress. The effect of Cd, Pb and Cr ions on enzyme activity in Spirogyra sp and Oscillatoriasp of filamentous cyanobacteria.The activities of antioxidative enzymes peroxidase were strongly increased following the increase of Cd, Pb and Cr ions concentration. Catalase activity shown of experiment in order to: Oscillatoriasp>Spirogyra sp.
Our research focus was to obtain an alternative source of biodegradable plastic from blue green algae and sweet potato starch to obtain a sustainable source of plastic synthesis. Different concentrations of starch and dried green algae were used to produce biopolymers. The amount of algae that produced the best bioplastic was the objective of the research. High percentages of dry algae produced material with high strength with a deep black colour. The concentration in percentage of sweet potato starch was varied from 25-87.5 while the algae powder was varied from 21.-75%. Cross-linking of cellulose polymers together through chemical processes produces tough material, which can be converted to various forms. The manufacture of plastics is a form of polymerization reaction. Bio-plastic or organic plastic is a polymer material obtained from renewable biomass sources such as vegetable oil, corn starch, potato starch, and pea starch unlike fossil-fuel plastics derived from petroleum. Starch is made of long chains of glucose molecules joined together. It contains two polymers: amylase which is straight chain and amyloceptin which is branched. When starch is dried from an aqueous solution it forms a film due to hydrogen bonding between the chains. However, the amyloceptin inhibits the formation of the bio-plastic. The reaction of starch with Hydrochloric acid breaks down the amylopectin forming an appreciable plastic.
The liquid industrial waste possesses serious threat to our environment. In the present study, Spirogyra sp. exposed to various concentrations (2ppm, 5ppm, 10ppm, 20ppm and 30ppm) of chromium metal, and their biochemical constituents (chlorophyll pigment, protein, proline and sugar) were studied. In Spirogyra, sp. highest accumulation was recorded at the 30 ppm concentration level for 21 day duration. The accumulation was depending on cell wall. Therefore, study concluded that spirogyra sp. accumulated high content of heavy metal (Cr) exhibit alteration in biochemical constituents. These findings may be helpful in bioremedial approaches to excess heavy metals in wastewater.
Md. Abdur Rashid, Mahmuda Khanam, Rowshan Ara Begum and Reza Md. Shahjahan
Investigations were conducted on some aspects of biology, toxicity and esterase variability of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae. Time periods required to develop into adult from egg were recorded 12-23 days in the present rearing condition (28-30 0C of temperature and 70-80% of relative humidity). Three types of insecticides (pyrithroid, organophosphate and biopesticides) were tested against the 3rd instar larvae, where malathion was found to be the most toxic followed by cypermethrin and BT crude extracts. LC50 for malathion and cypermethrin against the 3rd instar larvae were found to be 6.07×10 -7 and 8.13×10 -6 ppm at one hour of exposure respectively. In case of BT crude extracts the LC50 for 34L, 47L and R1 strains were 2.19, 1.01 and 2.19 mg/ml at 72 hours of exposure in order. 7.5% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was employed to investigate the esterase isozyme variability of this species in terms of sex, age groups, body parts and pesticidal effects. Altogether, five esterase bands (Est-1, Est-2, Est-3, Est-4 and Est-5) were identified in this species. All five bands were present in female, whereas only four in male (Est-1 absent). Est-3 was present in all stages of life, Est-4 and Est-5 only in adults, while other two bands showed switch on and off pattern of expression. Relatively, higher esterase bands were observed in the anterior part of the body (head). All the bands were predominantly present in the cypermethrin-killed adults but Est-2 and Est- 3 disappeared from the malathion killed adults.
Hazrat Ali, Mehtab Khan, Muhammad Idrees and Sohail Ahmad Jan
synthetic textile dyes are one of the serious water and soil pollutants released into the environment. Due to their toxic nature and persistence in the environment, they affect the aquatic and soil flora and fauna. Among the current pollution control technologies, bioremediation using fungi, bacteria, yeasts and algae is an attractive and promising approach due to its cost effectiveness, efficiency and environment friendly nature. In the current research work, the decolorization and degradation of crystal violet dye by a fungus, Alternaria solani was studied. The fungus effectively decolorized and degraded different concentrations of the dye. A 20 mg L-1 crystal violet solution was decolorized by 90.88 % in 11 days. The extent of decolorization increased with decrease of pH and best results were obtained at pH 5. The fungus effectively decolorized the dye in the presence of low to moderate concentrations of NaCl (10-30 g L-1). The mechanism of decolorization was biodegradation as indicated by UV-visible spectrophotometric analysis of the decolorized crystal violet solutions.
A rapid, efficient, clean and environmentally benign exclusive method of synthesis of unsym-phthaloyl dixanthates has been developed using reaction of symphthaloyl dichloride with potassium-O-alkylxanthates effectively in an aqueous medium with excellent yields under microwave irradiation. The results were compared with conventional methods. All the ecofriendly synthesized unsym-phthaloyl dixanthates were characterized by analytical and spectral methods. The photochemical decomposition of unsym-phthaloyl dixanthates yielded a mixture of several products, consisting of trans-biphthalyl as major product. The mechanisms of the green synthesis and photochemical reactions have also been studied.
A.K.Pandey, Jamaluddin, A.K.Awasthi and Amit Pandey
Municipal solid waste leachate becomes a major threat to human and environmental health because contaminants especially heavy metals like Nickel (Ni). The present investigation deals with effect of different level of Ni on the growth and biosorption efficacy of Aspergillus flavus. However, mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus was found till 10 mg/L. Thus it can be used for biosorption of Nickel from aqueous solution.
This study investigates the application of heat in the remediation of crude oil polluted soil. Various percentages pollution of soil by crude oil (0.4, 0.8,1.2, 1.6, 2.0, 2.4, 2.8 and 3.2) % were prepared and heated at six different temperatures (105, 110, 125, 130, 140 and 160) oC. The growth rate of cowpea (vigna sinensis) was used as an indicator to determine the level of remediation of the polluted soil to its original state. The most effective temperature for the remediation was 105oC while the remediation was highest at the 3.2% crude oil pollution. This method of remediation has good prospects due to its cost and time effectiveness.
Ground water samples from Sawai Madhopur town were collected and analyzed for the period during the month November and December 2010. 17 ground water samples were collected from different places of Sawai Madhopur town of Sawai Madhopur district. The quality analysis has been made for the various parameters like pH, EC, TDS, Total Hardness, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride and Alkalinity. It was found that Nitrate concentration was ranging from 8 to 213 mg/l . The permissible limit by WHO of Nitrate is 40-50 mg/L. High Nitrate concentration may cause blue baby syndrome or methemoglobinemia1.
N. V. Patel, D. M. Pathak, N. S. Joshi and M. R. Siddhapara
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence the five different levels of nitrogenous fertilizer (50kg, 75kg, 100 kg, 125kg and 150kg N/ha.) on rips population. Results showed that minimum thrips population (4.33 thrips/plant) was observed in application of lower dose 50kg N per ha. and maximum population (8.03 thrips/plant) was observed in application of higher dose 150kg N per ha. Recommended dose of fertilizer 100kg N per ha. recorded thrips population as 6.05 thrips per plant. From the yield point of view maximum yield (20.1 t/ha) was recorded in the treatment of 125 kg N per ha. followed by 100 kg N (18.6 t/ha). Treatment of 100 kg N per ha. emerged out economical with higher cost benefit ratio (1: 23.25), followed by 125 kg N per ha. (1: 21.65).
Picrorhiza kurroa is widely distributed in North-Western Himalayas belongs to family Scrophulariaceae. The plant is widely used in therapeutics as it has immense effects on hepatic system. The unique property of Picrorhiza is that it works specifically as hepatoprotectant. Alcoholic extract contains more kutkin, which is an excellent hepatoprotectant. Present work mainly concentrates on micropropagation of rhizomes by using hairy root cultures and enhancing the production of compounds by Agrobacterium rhizogens mediated transfer in the hairy roots.
Fatmir Faiku, Arben Haziri, Haxhere Faiku and Imer Haziri
The goal of this research was to investigate the condition for removing of Zn cation from water, through precipitation method with 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid as ligand. In this study we examined the precipitation of Zn(II) ion in water solutions of ZnSO4 x 7H2O (1x10-2 and 5x10-3 mol L-1) with 2,3- sihydroxybutanedioic acid (1x10-1 mol L-1, 1x10-2 mol L-1 and 1x10-3 mol L-1) in constant ionic strength of 0.6 mol L-1 NaCl. We have determined the concentration region at which Zn(II) start to precipitate. From precipitation diagrams of zinc with 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid in ionic force 0.6 mol L-1 NaCl, we have found that during decreasing the concentration 2,3- dihydroxybutanedioic acid in case of constant concentration of Zn(II) the limit of precipitation is shifted to lower values of pH. Also from precipitation diagrams we can see that when the concentration of zinc decreasing, in case of constant concentration of 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid the limit of precipitation will shift at lower values of pH. From the IR spectroscopic analysis we can conclude that Zn (II) ion can precipitate with 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid.
Yahia Y. I. Mosleh and Omar Abed El-Hakeem Almagrabi
The present study investigated the accumulation of heavy metals in some vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater at sites having long-term uses of treated wastewater for irrigation. Samples of vegetables, water and soil were collected from 3 experimental vegetable farms in Jeddah to evaluate the concentration of heavy metals, Cu, Cd, Zn, Fe and Pb with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the high level of Zn and Pb was found in soils (11.24 and 8.32 mg.kg−1), while the concentrations of Zn and Pb in sewage sludge was 22.23 and 18.98 mg.kg−1. The values of heavy metals in treated wastewater was 19.98 mg.L-1 for Zn, 0.98 mg.L-1 for Cu, 8.0 mg.L-1 for Fe, 0.4 mg.L-1 for Cd and 2.1 mgL-1 for Pb. The concentrations of heavy metal showed a trend of Fe > Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb in vegetable fruits, Fe > Cd > Zn > Cu > Pb in vegetable leafs. The accumulation of Cu in eggplant fruits was highest 7.67 mg.kg-1. The low concentrations of Pb (0.21, 0.26 and 0.32 mg.kg-1) reported in leaves of lettuce, squash and garden rocket respectively. While the concentrations of Fe in leaf tissues of the vegetables averaged 88.83, 56.93, 21.32 and 13.93 mg.kg-1 for eggplant, tomatoes, lettuce and squash respectively. Higher concentration of Fe was found in eggplant fruits 59.03 mg.kg-1. Most of the vegetables species growing in metal polluted soils are unusable to avoid the absorption of these metals. Soils may accumulate metals in sufficient quantities to cause clinical problems to both animals and human beings consuming these metal rich plants.
Kinetic investigations in Keggin-type phosphotungstic acid, which is ecofriendly and green catalyst, catalyzed oxidation of p-methyl benzyl alcohol by Nchlorosaccharin, (NCSA) in aqueous acetic acid, have been studied. Oxidation kinetics of p-methyl benzyl alcohol by N-chlorosaccharin in presence of Phosphotungstic acid (PTA) shows a first order dependence on NCSA and fractional order on p-methyl benzyl alcohol and PTA. The variation of [H+] and [saccharin] (reaction product) have insignificant effect on reaction rate. Activation parameters for the reaction have been evaluated from Arrhenius plot by studying the reaction at different temperature. The rate law has been derived based on obtained kinetics data and a plausible mechanism has been proposed.
Amulya Maddi, S B C Prasad and C.S.V. Ramachandra Rao
Atrazine is a chemical compound that inhibits photosynthesis in broad leaf weeds and is one of the most widely used herbicide in corn, cotton, wheat, cotton, banana, sugarcane etc. Degradation time of this chemical is around 200 days in soil and is frequently found as contaminant in wells and ground water and was proven to be possible carcinogen. In the present study, organism capable of degrading Atr zine is cultured & degradation studies are done.
Ethiopian farmers in the dry areas are suffering a lot by the spreading of Prosopis juliflora into their farmlands. In contrary, different countries of the world are using the plant stem, leaves and pods for different purposes. The plant has been introduced for combating desertification in most areas of the world. However, in contrary to its purpose of introduction it escaped out of control and is invading farmlands, pasture lands, rangelands, and irrigation schemes and caused many land cover changes in Ethiopia. Due to the fact that the tree has been introduced, but the knowledge and experiences surrounding its wise management and use has not. The plant is fast growing, drought resistant and invasive. Nowadays, it is repeatedly reported to be one of the invasive and a problematic tree heavily infests most agricultural as well as potential rangelands in Afar region as well as in other parts of the country. It is observed that the species has been increasing in density and area coverage from year to year even from month to month. The thorny nature of the plant, remarkable ability to withstand adverse condition, onbrowseable nature, and above all, the nomadic nature of the people have paved the way to invade most potential lands of the region. P. juliflora shows a great depressive effect on the number, density, and frequency of native vegetation. It has two main ecological opportunity behaviours: seed dormancy and allelophatic effect. It possesses allelochemicals that inhibit germination, growth and survival of other species.
Rajesh Rana, J.D.Saroch, Rekha Shrivastav, T. A. Qureshi, Susan Manohar and Pradeep Shrivastava and
Present study dealt with the histological investigation of Liver of the mercuric chloride exposed fishes along with the effect of Spirulina on the same. Fishes were brought from local fish markets of Bhopal. Alterations in histology of Liver were recorded in Mercuric chloride (HgCl2 0.5mg/l) toxicated fish fed with the basal diet and with the administration of 5% Spirulina in diet respectively. Liver of the exposed fish revealed several abnormalities in architecture and when fed with spirulina resulted in the recovery of the tissue which was disorganized by the toxicant before.
Ajay Jaat, J.D.Saroch, Rekha Shrivastav, T. A. Qureshi, Susan Manohar and Pradeep Shrivastava, K. Boran
Fishes are used in studies on the possible toxic effects of heavy metals even if they are susceptible to the accumulation of persistent pollution due also to their presence in an aquatic habitat. Mercury is a heavy metal, a significant environmental pollutant of industrial discharge containing toxic substances contribute tremendously to the pollution of aquatic ecosystem. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of Mercuric chloride and the ameliorative effect of 5 % spirulina on thehistology of ovary in the freshwater catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Control, 0.5 mg/l mercuric chloride and 5% Spirulina fed fishes exposed to 0.5mg/l mercuric chloride were used in the basic test for a period of 60 days. The fishes were sacrificed after an interval of 15, 30, 45 and 60 days respectively. The ovaries were analysed by histological method. The tissues of the ovary appear slightly follicular damaged in a few areas around the oocyte after 15, 30, 45, and 60 days of mercury chloride treatment. Pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes were less in number. The ameliorative effect of 5 % Spirulina fed treated fishes showed Pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes. Loosening of tissue was also recovered which earlier led to necrosis when compared to the ovary of the fish treated with HgCl2 solely at the same duration.
Ahatsham Malik, J.D.Saroch, Rekha Shrivastav, T. A. Qureshi and Susan Manohar
Remedial potential of Spirulina on the toxicated fish Clarias gariepinus was investigated in the present study. Fishes were procured from local fish markets of Bhopal. Anomalies were recorded in Mercuric chloride (HgCl2 0.5mg/l) toxicated fish fed with the basal diet and Mercuric chloride (HgCl2 0.5mg/l) toxicated fish along with the administration of 5% Spirulina in diet. Severe damages were observed in the histoarchitecture kidneys of the exposed fish. Necrosis, vacuolization, deshaped proximal, convulated and distal tubules, eccentrically situated nuclei, destructed haemopoietic tissues have been observed. Remedial effect of Spirulina revealed some signs of recovery in the haemopoietic tissues.
Green, environmental and eco-marketing are part of the new marketing approaches which do not just refocus, adjust or enhance existing marketing thinking and practice, but seek to challenge those approaches and provide a sustainability. Many consumers are environmentally conscious, seeking eco-friendly products and services from organizations that are socially responsible. The present paper gives the idea of all the implications of green marketing, product processing and packaging principles to reduce pollution and to protect the environment.
Rakesh Kumar, J.D.Saroch, Rekha Shrivastav, T. A. Qureshi and Susan Manohar.
Toxic activity of mercury chloride was tested in freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus. Aquatic ecosystems are the final sink for all potentially toxic metals in the environment via transfer from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Heavy metals such as mercury are serious pollutants of the aquatic environment because of their environment persistence and ability to be accumulated by aquatic organisms. Histological studies in testes of Clarias gariepinus under control condition, fishes exposed to 0.5 mg/l of HgCl2, and 5% Spirulina fed fishes exposed to 0.5 mg/l HgCl2 for 60 days were done. Histological examination of the testes revealed physiological changes in mercury chloride exposed group and treatment with spirulina improved testes histology.
D. M. Pathak , N. S. Joshi , M.S. Dulawat and N. V. Patel
Sesame or Til (Sesamum indicum L. ) belongs to family Pedal iaceae is one of the principal oilseeds in common use in India. Among the several diseases infecting sesame, phyllody seems much prevalent in Gujarat and especially in Saurashtra region. Managed disease by check the vector population through sys temic insecticide is only way to control this disease.
Fairlylife Kharryja, J.D.Saroch, Rekha Shrivastav, T. A. Qureshi and Susan Manohar
The African Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) has yellow colored flesh and is a popular and delicious fish, and was selected for the study due to its high tolerable character. Heavy metals, such as mercury are serious pollutants of the equatic environment. Therefore the aim of this study was to analyse the cytotoxic effects of mercuric chloride and the ameliorative effect of 5% spirulina feed on the pituitary gland of the freshwater catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Control, 0.5mg/l ercuric chloride and 5% Spirulina fed fishes exposed to 0.5mg/l mercuric chloride were used in the basic test for a period of 60 days. Exposed fishes to HgCl2 showed slightly atrophied in few areas of some adenohypophyseal cells when compared to the control. Whereas the Spirulina fed fishes showed a recovery in histological profile compared to the fishes exposed to 0.5mg/l mercuric chloride. The spirulina algae are the appropriate feed for the fish which determine the ameliorative effect to the affected fishes due to mercurychloride exposure.
Radhey Kant Sharma, Priyanka Sharma and Vipin Kumar Singh
Antioxidents are important in protective against various diseases like hypertensive, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. In present study of antioxidant activity of metanolic extracts of stem and stembark of Parkinsonia aculeate L. was carried out using standard in vitro models. The antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro by using three different assays viz., Nitric oxide Scavenging activity, DPPH Scavenging activity and Hydrogen peroxide Scavenging activity. The result of the study depends of concentration of the metanolic extracts of the stem bark of Parkinsonia aculeata L. This study will provide suitable opportunities for further investigation to verify these activities in vivo.
John Peter Paul, J., Shri Devi, S.D.K. and Yuvaraj, P.
A rapid and reproducible, multiple shoot generation protocol has been established in Solidago virgaurea L. via in vitro nodal culture. Among the different oncentration and combination of plant growth regulators tested, Murashige & Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5mg/ l IAA and 4.5mg/ l Kin produced a number of (12) multiple shoots within 15 days. The combination of IAA and Kin at the range of 1.0mg/l and 4.5mg/l Kin used for shoot elongation.