Bui Dinh Thach, Le Nguyen Tu Linh, Tran Thi Linh Giang, Trinh Thi Ben, Bui Van Thien, Vu Quang Dao, Le Kim Thach, Nguyen Thi Hai Yen and Ngo Ke Suong;DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/8/2/12635.
The present study was carried out to establish a pharmacognostic standard of the leaves of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau by determining the pharmacognostical, physiochemical and toxicological parameters. The study has been conducted according to guidelines of World Health Organization and Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Vietnam. Alcohol soluble extractive value was found to be 15.66% w/w respectively by hot method. Total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash was found to be 20.37% w/w, 4.51% w/w, 27.23% w/w respectively. Loss on drying, phenolic content was found to be 8.06% w/w, 0.036% w/w respectively. Content of heavy metal and microbial count was found within the acceptable range. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, aarotenoid, triterpenoid, coumarin, proanthocyanosid, phenolic compounds, flavonoids etc. The concentration of shaftoside, orientin, and isovitexin in C. nutans plant sample was 0.69, 0.24, and 0.015mg/g DW, respectively. The above studies may be useful for pharmacognostical study and standardization of the herbal drugs.
Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez, Isabel Cortez Hernandez, Joel Arturo Bonilla Epitacio;DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/8/2/10825
Cranberry (Vaccinium) contains large quantities of nutrients and bioactive phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, phenolic acids. These fruits are commonly known as berries and for its bittersweet flavour are used as food source and has been used in treating a large number of disorders in traditional medicine. This review displays a comprehensive and updated information on the botanical, phytochemistry, and pharmacological effects of cranberry species to evaluate therapeutic potential of their phenolic compounds. Information on cranberry was gathered by searching of scientific databases such as Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, Scopus, SciELO, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scirus, Medline, Wiley, Scifinder and books on medicinal herbs. Approximately 56 compounds belonging to anthocyanins, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, phenolic acids have been characterized from cranberry. Experimental evidences supported that the Vaccinium species have a wide range of pharmacological effects that can be used in therapy of infections in the urinary tract, treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, inflammatory diseases, periodontal disease, exert prebiotic actions, control of obesity and against influenza A (IAV) and B (IBV). In this manuscript, we reviewed several studies carried out in areas of phytochemistry and pharmacology of Vaccinium species, especially on extracts and its chemical content which have demonstrated an important therapeutic effect in infections in the urinary tract as well as other disorders related to oxidative stress which need further attention to investigate its clinically effective use.
Mycobacterium bolletii, a sub-species of Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing non-tuberculosis mycobacterium is isolated from respiratory and subcutaneous infection. The pathogen shows resistant to several antimicrobial drugs especially to clarithromycin. To reduce the effect of disease caused by Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. Bolletii pathogen the new drug is to be introduced which is non-resistant with them, for which drug target identification is a beneficial step not only for reducing the adverse effect of drug over the host but it’s also effective over the pathogen. In the present study a novel in silico approach is applied for target identification comprising four different phases. The first phase executes selection of protein data set that were filtered in phase II during substractive analysis having six different sub-phases of screening. The resultant proteins obtained at the end of phase II is subjected to quantitative analysis in phase III and finally Interactome analysis in phase IV. Finally, at the end of phase IV,9 proteins out of 5134 were identified as potential drug targets of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, 50594. As these 9 proteins were non-homologous with the complete proteome of Homo sapiens, gut flora microbes, anti-targets, homologous with essential genes having molecular weight less than 110 kb and are non-hypothetical proteins. These 9 proteins are also found in cytoplasm having more than 5 interactors.
To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of alcoholic leaves extract of SBT in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes in rats. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetic rats (n = 6) were administered alcoholic leaves extract of SBT(250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (0.5%CMC) or standard drug glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) for 21 days. Blood samples were collected by retro-orbital puncture and were analyzed for serum glucose by using glucose oxidaseperoxidase reactive strips and a glucometer. For oral glucose tolerance test, glucose (2 g/kg, p.o.) was administered to nondiabetic control rats and the rats treated with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and aqueous leaf extract of SBT. The serum glucose levels were analyzed at 0, 30, 60,90 and 120 min after drug administration. The effect of the extract on the body weight of the diabetic rats was also observed.The alcoholic leaves extract of SBT(250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) induced significant reduction (P < 0.05) of fasting blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetic rats. In the oral glucose tolerance test, the extract decreased the homocysteine and maintain the body weight of diabetic rats.It is concluded that aqueous leaf extract of SBT has significant antidiabetic activity as it lowers the fasting blood sugar level in diabetic rats and increases the glucose tolerance and also decreased plasma homocystein.
Rajesh E, Selvaraju A, Gopalakrishnan M, Priya G & Sekar T.;DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/8/2/07381.
In this present study we carried out investigation of phytochemical constituents, thin layer chromatographic (TLC) and High performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) studies of Chloroxylon swietenia leaf extract by following standard protocol. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent in leaf extracts showed the presence of number of constituents in hexane, chloroform, ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extract i. e: carbohydrate, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones, coumarin, cardiac glycosides, for the TLC, new solvent system developed for the best separation of the phytoconstituents present in the extract. The solvent system selected for the best results of TLC was the ratio of Toluene: Ethyl acetate (5:1.5) for ethanolic extract and it gives the Rf values of the same. For 10µl concentration, 13 spots were observed at 254 nm, 8 spots were observed at 366 nm and 7 spots were observed derivatization with vanillin- Sulphuric acid. HPTLC studies were carried out as per the methods of Harborne and Wagner et al (1998). The profile of various individual secondary metabolites were made and developed for authentication. This profile was performed at 254nm and 15 peaks were observed. Out of 15 peaks, two peaks showed maximum peak area i.e. 6th peak with Rf 0.24 value 12.30% of peak area and 10th peak with Rf 0.64 value of 14.01% of peak. HPTLC finger print analysis developed to help in proper identification and quantification of marker compounds.